New Android Trojan “Xbot” Phishes Credit Cards and Bank Accounts, Encrypts Devices for Ransom

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Palo Alto Networks LogoWe recently discovered 22 Android apps that belong to a new Trojan family we’re calling “Xbot”. This Trojan, which is still under development and regularly updated, is already capable of multiple malicious behaviors. It tries to steal victims’ banking credentials and credit card information via phishing pages crafted to mimic Google Play’s payment interface as well as the login pages of 7 different banks’ apps. It can also remotely lock infected Android devices, encrypt the user’s files in external storage (e.g., SD card), and then ask for a U.S. $100 PayPal cash card as ransom. In addition, Xbot will steal all SMS messages and contact information, intercept certain SMS messages, and parse SMS messages for mTANs (Mobile Transaction Authentication Number) from banks.

So far the malware doesn’t appear to be widespread, and some markers in its code and faked app interfaces indicate, at least for now, it mainly appears to target Android users in Russia and Australia. Of note, of the seven bank apps it is seen to imitate, six of them belong to some of the most popular banks in Australia. However, Xbot was implemented in a flexible architecture that could be easily extended to target more Android apps. Given we also observed the author making regular updates and improvements, this malware could soon threaten Android users around the world.

Xbot primarily uses is a popular attack technique called “activity hijacking” by abusing some features in Android. The apps Xbot is mimicking are not themselves being exploited. Starting with Android 5.0, Google adopted a protection mechanism to mitigate this attack but other attack approaches used by Xbot are still affecting all versions of Android.

Xbot’s Evolution and Spreading

We believe Xbot is a successor to the Android Trojan Aulrin that was first discovered in 2014. Xbot and Aulrin have very similar code structures and behaviors, and some resource files in Aulrin are also in Xbot samples. The main difference between them is that Xbot implements its behaviors using JavaScript through Mozilla’s Rhino framework, while Aulrin used Lua and .NET framework. The earliest sample of Xbot we found was compiled in May 2015 and while comparing Xbot to Aulrin, it seemed to us the author re-wrote Aulrin using a different language and framework. The author has also progressively made Xbot more complex; the most recent versions use Dexguard, a legitimate tool intended to protect Android apps by making them difficult to reverse engineer or be tampered with.

We are not clear how Xbot spreads in the wild. However, using VirusTotal we found samples that were hosted on the below URLs over the past several months:

  • hxxp://market155[.]ru/Install.apk
  • hxxp://illuminatework[.]ru/Install.apk
  • hxxp://yetiathome15[.]ru/Install.apk
  • hxxp://leeroywork3[.]co/install.apk
  • hxxp://morning3[.]ru/install.apk

There are several things that imply the developer of Xbot could be of Russian origin. The earlier versions of Xbot displayed a fake notification in Russian for Google Play phishing, there are Russian comments in its JavaScript code, and the domains we’ve uncovered were registered via a Russian registrar. Xbot will also intercept SMS messages from a specific bank in Russia and parse them for bank account information, which it will exfiltrate if found. While later versions use English instead of Russian for the notification, the language was not changed elsewhere… Click HERE to read more

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